—–. 1989. The fresh Syntax and you can Semantics out-of Verb Morphology from inside the Progressive Aramaic: An effective Jewish Dialect of Iraqi Kurdistan. Western Oriental Series, 69. The fresh new Refuge: American Oriental Neighborhood.
Meehan, Charles, and Jacqueline Alon. 1979. The fresh new Guy Whose Tunic Trapped to help you Him: Good Folktale regarding Jewish Neo-Aramaic Dialect from Zakho (Iraqi Kurdistan). Israel Chinese language Education 9:174-203.
Sabar, Yona. 1976. Lel-Huza: Tale and you may Background within the a routine of Lamentations with the Ninth away from Abdominal on Jewish Neo-Aramaic Dialect regarding Zakho. JSS -62.
—–. 1988. The publication away from Exodus when you look at the Neo-Aramaic on the Dialect of one’s Jewish Society away from Zakho [Hebrew]. Jerusalem: Magnes Push.
These six binyanim out-of Syriac was basically lower in NENA so you’re able to a few basic kinds, which have a third directly allied to your next
Thomason, Sarah Grey, and you will Terrence Kaufman. 1988. Language Get in touch with, Creolization, and you will Hereditary Linguistics. Berkeley and you can Los angeles: Univ. away from Ca Drive.
The first class originated from the latest peal, the next class on pael, additionally the third, whoever vocalism comes after regarding the second, hails from the newest afel
Another grounds complicating the trouble is the differential has an effect on of various co-territorial languages. Brand new dialect variations in this Kurdish have become considerable, and its effect might be tracked a number of the adaptation among NENA languages. For example, the Jewish Neo-Aramaic out of Halabja, including the Kurdish of town, does not identify something special and you can coming stressful, however, where Kurdish retains like an improvement, thus really does Neo-Aramaic. Within the Azerbaijan, Turkish features exerted solid affect the Jewish dialect (Garbell 1965b), and also the languages of plain from Mosul show a powerful determine off Arabic not viewed someplace else.
Tkhuma (Tx): The language out of descendants out-of emigrants from one of your semi-separate ashirets out-of the southern part of Poultry, now resident across the Khabur Area in Syria. Data is out-of Jacobi (1973) and you will my personal cards.
(5) Syriac got about three earliest spoken stems, the fresh new peal, new pael, while the afel. These types of had been additional around three couch potato stems, designed from the earliest of these of the prefixation away from age[Theta]-: the newest elizabeth[Theta]pael, the new elizabeth[Theta]paal, while the ettafal. This example is available during NENA. In the most common NENA languages, verbs tend to stay static in the newest verb classes where they certainly were found in earlier degrees of your own vocabulary. That is, the descendant out-of a beneficial Syriac peal verb will be a good NENA Group I verb, and you can a Syriac pael verb would be good NENA Class II verb: like, Urmi mejores aplicaciones de citas wicca ptaxa ‘open’ regarding prior to peal, and sadure ‘send’ out-of prior to pael. Although not, from inside the Jewish Azerbaijani, Halabja, and maybe Koy Sanjaq, the course subscription has been reorganized that is foreseeable towards foundation of one’s model of the stalk unlike the historic source. Like, inside Azerbaijani brand new C stem comes with the function CaCoC- having voice verbs, whichever the source, and you may CCaC- to have center-poor verbs: garosen ‘I are pulling’, however, kwasan ‘I (f.) was descending’ (Garbell 1965, 64).
(11) Another very extreme innovation in the NENA is the 3rd people copula having l: ile ‘he is’, ila ‘she is’. This type can get derive (Noldeke 1868, 203) out-of we[Theta] leh ‘he has’, however, zero copula enjoy it can be found additional NENA. The original and next person lack an l, except during the Jewish Azerbaijani, where in fact the l could have been general from the paradigm: Jilu iwIt ‘you (masc.) are’, Aradhin we:win ‘I (masc.) am’, Azerbai big’ (Garbell 1965, 64). ile is located throughout the NENA but inside the Halabja, that has -(y)e: yarxa rahamim-ye ‘it ’s the month regarding mercy’. Neither Turoyo neither Mandaic has models synchronous so you’re able to ile: Turoyo harke-yo ‘he is actually here’, harke-no ‘I was here’; Mandaic basim-ye ‘he is actually charming’, basim-na ‘I am charming’ (Macuch 1965, 443).
(19) The old Aramaic phrase to own ‘son’, bra in BT, has been offered in all NENA but Hertevin by the addition of the diminutive suffix -ona/-una: Azerbaijan Jewish brona (Garbell 1965, 297), Jilu bruna (Fox 1992, 51), Aradhin bru:na (Krotkoff 1982, 122), Tisqopa brona (Rubba, personal interaction), Zakho brona (Meehan and you may Alon 1979, 177). not, both Turoyo and you will Mandaic possess an enthusiastic epenthetic vowel, however, no suffix: Turoyo ?abro (Jastrow 1985, 221), and you may Mandaic eber or ebra (Macuch 1965, 520).
b) In many cases, Hertevin aligns that have Turoyo, against the rest of NENA. It does not have a great CCaCa establish demanding (6), has no sodir preterite (12), has no preposition ta (15), and you will uses ruh to create reflexive pronouns (14).
—–. 1965. This new Jewish Neo-Aramaic Dialect off Persian Azerbaijan: Linguistic Study and you can Folkloristic Messages. Janua Linguarum, collection practica step three. The latest Hague: Mouton.