Centered on Schmidt (1999) SCHMIDT GA, BIGG GR and you will ROHLING EJ
In oceanic regions with a positive E-P (Evaporation-Precipitation) balance, there is enrichment in the superficial ocean layer due to preferential evaporation of the lighter species ( Meredith MEREDITH MP, GROSE KE, MCDONAGH EL, HEYWOOD KJ, FREW RD and DENNIS PF. 1999. J Geophys Res Oceans (1978–2012) 104(C9): 20949-20962. et al. 1999). On the other hand, river discharges, high precipitation and ice melting are related to regions with depleted values of ? 18 Osw ( Redfield REDFIELD AC and FRIEDMAN I. 1965. Factors affecting the distribution of deuterium in the ocean. In Symposium on Marine Geochemistry. Rhode Island University Narragansett Marine Laboratory Occasional Publication, Vol. 3, p. 149-168. and Friedman 1965). On a geologic time scale, the glacial boundary conditions influence the isotopic composition of the oceans due to the storage of lighter ? 18 O and ?D isotopes in the ice sheets, which is known as global ice volume effect. However, during interglacial periods, this effect was reversed (Holloway et al. 2015).
Because salinity and ? 18 Osw are controlled by the same processes, they show a quasi-linear relationship, and the slope is dependent on the kinetic processes acting in the water mass formation area. 2015. Differences among subtropical surface salinity patterns. Oceanogr 28(1): 32-39. 1965). 1999. Global Seawater Oxygen-18 Database – v1.21. , the global mixing line between ? 18 Osw and salinity can be used as an approximation only in mid to high latitudes, since the scatter for the tropical samples could be up to 0.13‰. Therefore, regional mixing lines become essential pieces in paleoclimatic studies in the equatorial and tropical regions. Holloway et al. (2015) suggested that regions with marked variability in the evaporation-precipitation budget and strong oceanographic dynamics need additional constraints to establish good salinity and ? 18 Osw relationships on spatial and temporal scales. On the other hand, South Atlantic, Indian and Tropical Pacific Oceans have more reliable paleosalinity reconstructions without the need of additional constraints.
Despite the importance of the Southwest Atlantic Ocean for thermohaline circulation and the global climate through in the South Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (SAMOC), only a few studies have been carried out in this area using stable isotopes. For example, GEOSECS was conducted in the South Atlantic focusing on open waters (Kroopnick 1980, Ostlund OSTLUND HG, CRAIG H, BROECKER WS and SPENCER D. 1987. GEOSECS Atlantic, Pacific and Indian ocean expeditions, shorebased data and graphics, Vol. 7. Technical report, I.D.O.E. National Science Foundation, p. 200. et al. 1987) and an independent work of Pierre et al. (1991) focused on a small offshore area of the southwestern Atlantic. None of these papers were focused on paleoclimatic applications. The aim of the present study was to investigate the distribution of the stable isotopes (? 18 Osw and ?Dsw) at the Western Tropical South Atlantic border, from the continental shelf to slope, in order to better understand the main fractionation processes of these isotopes and establish a regional salinity and ? 18 Osw relationship to improve paleoceanographic knowledge in the study region.
Next, pursuing the h2o bulk sinks, the relationship stays secure on the h2o mass lifetime (Craig and you will Gordon GORDON AL, GIULIVI CF, BUSECKE J and BINGHAM FM
The latest eastern Brazilian continental margin is normal for the quicker thickness and you can low depths when comparing to other parts of one’s Southwestern Atlantic margin, on account of lower continental erosion speed together with small area of aquatic sedimentation. On the other hand, the ceaseless presence of your Brazil Current moving on southwestern synchronous with the shelf and also the North Brazil Latest streaming equatorward hauling loving and saline Exotic Drinking water gives the region a fundamentally oligotrophic character, which decreases the fresh genesis from biogenic thing that make up really of your sedimentary bottoms on southeastern Brazilian continental bookshelf ( Knoppers KNOPPERS B, EKAU W and FIGUEIREDO AG. 1999. The newest shore and you can shelf away from eastern and you will northeast Brazil and thing transportation. Geo-Aquatic Lett 19: 171. ainsi que al. 1999). The bifurcation of the Southern Equatorial Current (SEC) happens around https://datingranking.net/es/blackchristianpeoplemeet-review/ ten°–14°S close to the body as well as the continental shelf width varies from 42 kilometer out of Maceio to eight km off Salvador, that have an average of 31 kilometer ( Fig. 1).